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Next dinner event at Haberfield for 55 years plus. For Asian Dating , please visit our new website: Call - 02 Mobile - Our service is personalized, please send your details, our matchmaker will contact you within 24 hours to invite you come for a meeting. Between and , convicts and their jailers made up the majority of the population; in one generation, however, a population of emancipated convicts who could be granted land began to grow. These people pioneered Sydney's private sector economy and were later joined by soldiers whose military service had expired, and later still by free settlers who began arriving from Britain.
Governor Phillip departed the colony for England on 11 December , with the new settlement having survived near starvation and immense isolation for four years. With the expansion of European settlement large amounts of land was cleared for farming, which resulted in the destruction of Aboriginal food sources. This, combined with the introduction of new diseases such as smallpox, caused resentment within the Aboriginal clans against the British and resulted in violent confrontations.
Pemulwuy , an Aboriginal Political leader , is notable for his resistance to the European settlement of Australia.
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He persuaded the Eora , Dharug and Tharawal people to join his campaign against the newcomers. His most common tactic was to burn crops and kill livestock. Whether Pemulwuy was actively resisting European settlement, or was only attempting to uphold Aboriginal law, which often involved revenge acts, is debated by historians. Regardless, the British believed the attacks made against them were acts of war. In March , Pemulwuy led a group of Aboriginal warriors, estimated to be at least , in an attack on a government farm at Toongabbie. At dawn the next day government troops and settlers followed them to Parramatta.
When confronted, Pemulwuy threw a spear at a soldier prompting the government troops and settlers to open fire. Pemulwuy was the first to be shot and wounded. The Aboriginal warriors threw many spears, hitting one man in the arm. The difference in firepower was evident and five Aboriginal warriors were killed instantly.
The war was extremely complex, as many of the Aboriginal nations occasionally allied themselves to the British in order to conquer more land for their tribes, and just as quickly returned to a state of war against the British. It was fought using mostly guerrilla -warfare tactics; however, several conventional battles also took place. The wars resulted in the defeat of the Hawkesbury and Nepean Indigenous clans who were subsequently dispossessed of their lands.
Early Sydney was moulded by the hardship suffered by early settlers.
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In the early years, drought and disease caused widespread problems, but the situation soon improved. The military colonial government was reliant on the army, the New South Wales Corps also known as the "Rum Corps" due to their monopoly on the importation of alcohol. Conditions for convicts in the penal colony were harsh. In , Irish convicts led the Castle Hill Rebellion. In these conflicts came to open rebellion, with the Rum Rebellion , in which the Rum Corps ousted Governor William Bligh known from the mutiny on the Bounty. The New South Wales Corps was formed in England in as a permanent regiment to relieve the marines who had accompanied the First Fleet.
Officers of the Corps soon became involved in the corrupt and lucrative rum trade in the colony. In the Rum Rebellion of , the Corps, working closely with the newly established wool trader John Macarthur , staged the only successful armed takeover of government in Australian history, deposing Governor William Bligh and instigating a brief period of military rule in the colony prior to the arrival from Britain of Governor Lachlan Macquarie in Macquarie served as the last autocratic Governor of New South Wales , from to and had a leading role in the social and economic development of Sydney which saw it transition from a penal colony to a budding free society.
He established public works, a bank , churches, and charitable institutions and sought good relations with the Aborigines. In he sent Blaxland , Wentworth and Lawson across the Blue Mountains , where they found the great plains of the interior. Central, however to Macquarie's policy was his treatment of the emancipists , whom he decreed should be treated as social equals to free-settlers in the colony.senjouin-kikishiro.com/images/bemekyd/3596.php
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Against opposition, he appointed emancipists to key government positions including Francis Greenway as colonial architect and William Redfern as a magistrate. London judged his public works to be too expensive and society was scandalised by his treatment of emancipists.
Governor and Mrs Macquarie preferred the clean air of rural Parramatta to the unsanitary and crime-ridden streets of Sydney Town and transformed Old Government House, Parramatta , into an elegant Palladian -style home in the English manner. Demand for infrastructure to support the growing population and subsequent economic activity led to massive improvements to the city's railway and port systems throughout the s and s. After a period of rapid growth, further discoveries of gold in Victoria began drawing new residents away from Sydney towards Melbourne and a great rivalry began to grow between the two cities.
The rivalry culminated as Australia moved to become a federation and both Melbourne and Sydney lobbied to be officially recognised as the capital city a dispute settled with the creation of a new city, Canberra , instead. The first government established in Sydney after was an autocratic system run by an appointed governor — although English law was transplanted into the Australian colonies by virtue of the doctrine of reception , thus notions of the rights and processes established by the Magna Carta of and the Bill of Rights of were brought from Britain by the colonists.
Agitation for representative government began soon after the settlement of the colonies. The northern wing of Macquarie Street's 's Rum Hospital was requisitioned and converted to accommodate the first Parliament House in , as it was the largest building available in Sydney at the time. William Wentworth established the Australian Patriotic Association Australia's first political party in to demand democratic government for New South Wales. The reformist attorney general , John Plunkett , sought to apply Enlightenment principles to governance in the colony, pursuing the establishment of equality before the law, by extending jury rights to emancipists , then legal protections to convicts, assigned servants and Aborigines and legal equality between Anglicans , Catholics , Presbyterians and later Methodists.
In , the celebrated humanitarian Caroline Chisholm arrived at Sydney and soon after began her work to alleviate the conditions for the poor women migrants. She met every immigrant ship at the docks, found positions for immigrant girls and established a Female Immigrants' Home. Later she began campaigning for legal reform to alleviate poverty and assist female immigration and family support in the colonies.
In the Sydney City Council was established. Australia's first parliamentary elections were conducted for the New South Wales Legislative Council in , again with voting rights for males only tied to property ownership or financial capacity. The first elected aldermen met in public houses, among their constituents, but began campaigning for a civic hall. They chose the run down site of Sydney's first official European cemetery: That same year, a design for the Sydney Town Hall by architect J. Willson was chosen which took its inspiration from the French style of the Hotel de Ville de Paris.
The end of convict transportation and the rapid growth of population following the Australian gold rushes led to further demands for "British institutions" in New South Wales, which meant an elected parliament and responsible government. Over the course of the 19th-century Sydney established many of its major cultural institutions. Governor Lachlan Macquarie 's vision for Sydney included the construction of grand public buildings and institutions fit for a colonial capital.
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Macquarie Street began to take shape as a ceremonial thoroughfare of grand buildings. He founded the Royal Botanic Gardens and dedicated Hyde Park to the "recreation and amusement of the inhabitants of the town and a field of exercises for the troops". Macquarie set aside a large portion of land for an Anglican Cathedral and laid the foundation stone for the first St Mary's Catholic Cathedral in St Andrew's Anglican Cathedral , though more modest in size than Macquarie's original vision, later began construction and, after fire and setbacks, the present St Mary's Catholic Cathedral foundation stone was laid in , from which rose a towering gothic-revival landmark.
The first Sydney Royal Easter Show , an agricultural exhibition, began in An academy of art formed in and the present Art Gallery of New South Wales building began construction in Artists such as Arthur Streeton and Tom Roberts of the Heidelberg School worked here at this time and created some of the masterpieces of newly developing and distinctively Australian styles of painting.
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Australia's first rugby union club, the Sydney University Football Club , was founded in Sydney in the year Initially widely popular, the code would later assume secondary popularity in Sydney, when in , the New South Wales Rugby League was established and would grow to be the favourite football code of the city. S was established in Sydney and interschool rugby and athletics competitions began that year, followed by cricket and rowing the following year. The Sydney International Exhibition of showcased the colonial capital to the world. Some exhibits from this event were kept to constitute the original collection of the new Technological, Industrial and Sanitary Museum of New South Wales today's Powerhouse Museum.
Built as a monument to the popular and long reigning monarch, Queen Victoria , construction took place while the city was in severe recession and construction of the ornate structure helped employ out of work stonemasons, plasterers, and stained window artists. Restored in the late 20th century, the building remains a boutique shopping and dining hall. Sydney's preservation of heritage buildings, particularly Victorian terrace houses , has drawn comparisons to "parts of London, particularly given the predominance of the London terrace".
Sydney's first newspaper was the Sydney Gazette established, edited and distributed by George Howe. It appeared irregularly between and , but nonetheless provides a valuable source on the early development of the colony based at Sydney. The Sydney Morning Herald joined the Sydney Gazette as a daily publication in ; it continues to be published to this day. Archibald and John Haynes , founded The Bulletin magazine; the first edition appeared on 31 January It was intended to be a journal of political and business commentary, with some literary content.
Initially radical, nationalist, democratic, and racist, it gained wide influence and became a celebrated entry-point to publication for Australian writers and cartoonists such as Henry Lawson , Banjo Paterson , Miles Franklin , and the illustrator and novelist Norman Lindsay.
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Sydney once had the largest tram system in Australia, the second largest in the British Commonwealth after London , and one of the largest in the world. This resulted in a track that protruded from the road surface and damaged the wheels of wagons trying to cross it. Hard campaigning by competing omnibus owners — as well as the fatal accident involving the leading Australian musician Isaac Nathan in — led to closure in In a steam tramway was established.
There were also two cable tram routes, to Ocean Street Edgecliff and in North Sydney , later extended to Crows Nest , because of the steep terrain involved. Electrification started in , and most of the system was converted by By the s, the system had reached its maximum extent. The overcrowded and heaving trams running at a high frequency, in competition with growing private motor car and bus use, created congestion. Competition from the private car, private bus operators and the perception of traffic congestion led to the gradual closure of lines from the s.
Overseas transport experts were called upon to advise the city on its post-war transport issues and recommended closure of the system, but generally went against public opinion. Nevertheless, closure became Labor government policy and the system was wound down in stages, with withdrawal of the last service, to La Perouse , in With the inauguration of the Commonwealth of Australia on 1 January , Sydney ceased to be a colonial capital and became the capital of the Australian state of New South Wales.
With industrialisation , Sydney expanded rapidly, and by the early 20th century it had a population well in excess of one million. With the close of the Victorian Era , the character of Sydney began to change in various ways. During the 19th century, Sydney's beaches had become popular seaside holiday resorts, but daylight sea bathing was considered indecent until the early 20th century.
In defiance of these restrictions, in October , William Gocher , wearing a neck to knee costume, entered the water at Manly Beach only to be escorted from the water by the police — but the following year, Manly Council removed restrictions on all-day bathing — provided neck to knee swimming costumes were worn — and Sydney's love affair with sun and surf flourished.
In the summer of , Duke Kahanamoku of Hawaii introduced surf board riding to Sydney's Freshwater Beach , amazing locals and starting a long-term love affair with the sport in Australia. The small Australian nation was deeply affected. After the war, Martin Place was selected as the site for the Sydney Cenotaph which honours the dead and remains a focus for Anzac Day commemorations in the city to this day. In the cultural life of the city, the first Archibald Prize was awarded in Now regarded as the most important portraiture prize in Australia, it originated from a bequest from J.
Archibald , the editor of The Bulletin , who died in Administered by the Trustees of the Art Gallery of New South Wales , it is awarded for "the best portrait, preferentially of some man or woman distinguished in Art, Letters, Science or Politics. In a Sheffield Shield cricket match at the Sydney Cricket Ground in , Don Bradman , a young New South Welshman of just 21 years of age, wrote his name into the record books at by smashing the previous highest batting score in first-class cricket with runs not out in just minutes.
The Great Depression hit Sydney badly. One of the highlights of the Depression Era however, was the completion of the Sydney Harbour Bridge in It carried six traffic lanes, two rail lines and two tram tracks. Sixteen workers were killed during construction.
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A toll was established and it cost a horse and rider three pence and a car six pence to cross the bridge. In its first year, the average annual daily traffic was around 11, vehicles by the beginning of the 21st century, the figure stood at around , vehicles per day. However, just as Lang was about to cut the ribbon, a man in military uniform rode in on a horse, slashing the ribbon with his sword and opening the bridge in the name of the people of New South Wales before the official ceremony began.
He was promptly arrested. The uninvited ribbon cutter was Francis de Groot , a member of a right-wing paramilitary group called the New Guard , opposed to Lang's leftist policies and resentful of the fact that a member of the Royal Family had not been asked to open the bridge. With large unemployment and growing state debt, the premier, Jack Lang became embroiled in disputes with the federal government and foreign creditors and was dismissed by the Governor in The British Empire Games were held in Sydney from 5—12 February, timed to coincide with Sydney's sesquicentennial years since the foundation of British settlement in Australia.
The Japanese entered the war in December Singapore fell in February and Japan occupied much of South East Asia and the large parts of the Pacific In response, the Australian government expanded the army and air force and called for an overhaul of economic, domestic, and industrial policies to mount a total war effort. Labour shortages forced the government to accept women in more active roles in war work. After launching their Pacific War , the Imperial Japanese Navy managed to infiltrate New South Wales waters and in late May and early June , Japanese submarines made a daring series of attacks on the cities of Sydney and Newcastle.
On the night of 31 May—1 June , three midget submarines were launched from their large "mother" submarines east of Sydney to enter Sydney Harbour to attack shipping located there: The first of the two-men submarines entered the harbour at 8 pm, while the third became entangled in the harbour's anti-submarine boom net. One sub managed to reach Potts Point where, under fire, it fired two torpedoes at the US heavy cruiser Chicago. Missing the target, one torpedo struck the sea wall against which the converted harbour ferry HMAS Kuttabul was moored.
The blast sank the Kuttabul, killing 19 Australian and 2 British naval personnel who were asleep on board. In the aftermath of the attack, the Harbour's defences were increased and the Australian population feared Japanese invasion. Amid great controversy, the bodies of the four Japanese submariners responsible for the raid were cremated with full military honors and returned to Japan. Causing little real damage, the aim of this second attack was to create a sense of unease among the city's population. Some Sydney-siders moved away from the coast while others dug air raid shelters in their backyards and membership of volunteer defence organisations grew to over 80,
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